2020-02-11 13:18:21 UTC
Znikneli okolo 700 lat temu. Byli odrebna genetycznie grupa ludzka zasiedlajaca Arktyke i wyparta przez wspolczesnych Inuits. Pochodzili od jednego maternalnego przodka i w przeciwienstwie do Inuitow genetycznie jakby pozbawieni agresywnosci w stosunku do innych ludzi, co moglo miec podstawy w genach:
DNA Analysis Searches for Answers
For a DNA study in 2014, well-preserved samples from human remains originating in Arctic Siberia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland were initially difficult to obtain. Difficulty arose due to the common practice of the Arctic cultures to bury their dead on the surface instead of below the hard permafrost. This act meant that many of the remains were often frozen and thawed many times over the years and much of the DNA was damaged or destroyed.
Nevertheless, the scientists obtained 26 whole genome data samples. The results of the study have rocked previous theories on both the arrival of end of the Dorset culture. As the study presented in 2014 says:
“We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BC to 1300 AD) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.”
With this new information, scientists began the search for new reasons for the decline of the Dorset culture. One possibility is that the more warlike and technologically advanced Thule culture massacred all of the Dorset. William Fitzhugh, an anthropologist at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and one of the authors of the DNA study explained this possibility to Science magazine:
“This meeting between these two peoples would have been a very stark meeting, between people with very conservative, beautiful stone technology and beautiful artwork and so on, but socially and economically, they were just no match for this onslaught from this Thule machine. ... They were, in a sense, sitting ducks.”
Oral histories from the Inuit seem to support this hypothesis, and the Canadian Museum of History captured the following quotes from people whose ancestors were present at the end of the Dorset culture:
"The Tunit were strong people, but timid and easily put to flight. Nothing is told of their lust to kill."
"The Tunit were a strong people, and yet they were driven from their villages by others who were more numerous, by many people of great ancestors; but so greatly did they love their country, that when they were leaving Uglit, there was a man who, out of desperate love for his village, harpooned the rocks and made the stones fly about like bits of ice."
Apart from the newcomers destroying the older culture, another issue became evident through the 2014 DNA study – the Dorset people appeared to have descended from just a single maternal line. "I can't remember any other evidence of a population having such low diversity in the mitochondrial DNA," senior study author and director of the Center for GeoGenetics at the University of Copenhagen's Natural History Museum of Denmark, Eske Willerslev told Science magazine. With an estimation that the Dorset population only numbered up to 4,000 people, there is the possibility that a lack of genetic diversity may have left the Dorset open to problems from inbreeding or disease.